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Roman Pottery Bibliography

Essex: page 4

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231 Sealey, P R, 'The amphoras - summary and conclusions', in entry no. 226, 98-111. See also, in microfiche, M3: A2-9, Williams, D F, 'The amphoras - Petrological examination' M3: A9-l4, Niblett, R, Williams, D F & Sealey, PR, 'Catalogue of amphoras and their contexts' For site & location details, see entry no. 226. amp See also entry no. 235.
Sherds from a minimum of 135 amphoras were found and a range of nine types and stoppers is listed in the microfiche section. Most of these vessels reached the site in the period AD 43-60/1 and it is their considerable quantity which is permits a statistical study of trade in the early years of Roman occupation. They are of value not only for the understanding of the site itself, but also as a reflection of the economy in other parts of the Empire. In order to evaluate the economic significance of the various foams the minimum number of vessels and their respective capacities are calculated and presented in a number of tables.
Wine and olive oil were evidently the principal contents in terms of volume, though highly-salted marine sauces and salted fish were also important. Of these, wine was the single most important commodity and there is a detailed study of the wine trade. An estimate of the significance of the different wine-producing regions shows that Italy was the most important source of the wine consumed at Sheepen. However, in teams of amphora-borne commodities of all types, Spain was most important, accounting for 61 of the 135 amphoras. Spain was the only source of olive oil, salazones and probably de frutum. The report also contains an assessment of chronology and attempts to account for the high numbers of Dressel 1 amphoras at Sheepen in the early years of occupation (a total of 51 from both the 1930-39 and the 1970 excavations). These are explained in terms of secondary use and the possibility of a 1st century BC settlement is discounted.

232
Williams, D F, 'Petrological analysis of the mortaria', in entry no. 226, 93.
For site & location details, see entry no. 226.
1gm
See also entry no. 228.
Sherds from four of the mortaria selected for publication are analysed. One, in Williams fabric 5, is from the Mayen region of Germany, and the remaining three, all fabric 4, have textural similarities with the first.
The work is noted as being part of a long-term project.

233 Rodwell, K A (with reports on the mortaria and samian by K F
Hartley & W Rodwell, respectively), 'The excavation of a Romano-British pottery kiln at Palmer's School, Grays, Essex', Essex Arch. & Hist. Vol 15, 1984, (11-35), 22-33.
exc,sir/kln/late 2nd or early 3rd (kiln); late 1st,early 2nd-3rd or
4thltyp/sts/cts/ets/tsg/bb2/grc/grf
lcg/lnd/wes/wht/glm/?lgm/lom/oxm/pph/vrm
An account of a late 2nd or early 3rd century kiln characteristic of the North Thames bank which produced a range of coarse wares including pedestal urns. Debris from an earlier phase indicated production of cream and cream-slipped ware mortaria and flagons and also coarse wares. It is the mortaria, reported on separately by K F Hartley, which provide the dating evidence for the two kiln phases: these were stamped with triple her ringbone stamps which are unique to the site (note: the scale on Fig. 7 (mortarium stamps) should read 2:1, not 1:1).
A total of c 75 kg of kiln pottery was recovered and a limited range of six coarse ware foams are defined, in addition to the mortaria and flagons. This is the only site outside Colchester known to
    have produced white wares in Essex but of the two grey ware fabrics, the author notes 'Neither would be distinctive away from their site of manufacture'. A small amount of non-kiln pottery is described and the samian is reported on separately by W Rodwell.
Note: there is some confusion over the dating of the kiln since in the introduction (p 1) a late 2nd century date is given but in the discussion (p 34) a date of late 2nd or early 3rd century is implied by the mortaria.
Location: Thurrock Local History Museum, Grays

234 Rodwell, W J, 'The Production and Distribution of Pottery and Tiles in the Territory of the Trinovantes', Essex Arch. & Hist.
Vol 14 (1982), 1983, 15-76.
syn/kln,ptp,trd/mid 1st-late 4th
clc/clm/cls/har/hax
Although first drafted in 1974, and therefore not privy to the now considerable amount of work on this subject which has since taken place, this paper is nonetheless an important contribution to the knowledge and understanding of kilns in the Trinovantian area (of which Essex forms a large part). It is divided into three sections covering raw materials, marketing and distribution together with a substantial appendix listing known or inferred kilns and a useful bibliography.
Revisions to Hull's (1963) original dating of some of the Colchester kilns appear in Appendix 1 and there are changes, with some additions, to the earlier list of samian potters (stamps).
There is an attempt to consider production in geographic and economic terms (see graph, Fig. 10) with the following conclusions: (1) Colchester kilns saw intense activity in the 2nd century (2) rural areas (Le. outside Colchester) saw a steady level of production from the mid-1st to the late 3rd century, with a substantial increase in the number of kilns in the 4th century.
Four groups of wares are selected for detailed study in the section on marketing and distribution; Colchester samian, mortaria, colour-coated wares and Hadham colour-coated wares.
Of these, the three Colchester wares are found to have been closely related in terms of potters, kilns, fabrics and decoration in the period c AD 140/150-200, during which time these wares dominated the Trinovantian market. Considering the 4th group, Hadham (Herts) wares, Rodwell isolates a distinctive range of products which were widely distributed in Essex in the later Roman period.

R P Symonds writes: It must be noted that there are several somewhat controversial aspects to this paper. On the dating of the production of samian at Colchester, it is not in agreement continued with the dating proposed in entry no. 236 (Simpson 1983) which appears in the same volume of Essex Arch. & Hut.. On the relations between samian production at Coichester and that at Sinzig on the Rhine it is not wholly supported by the paper which is published elsewhere in this volume of JRPS (Storey, Symonds, Hart, Smith & Walsh, 'A chemical investigation of 'Colchester' samian by means of inductively-coupled plasma emission spectrometry'), although the points in dispute may be relatively minor. The statement that Colchester samian, mortaria, colour-coated wares and Hadham colour- coated wares "are the principal local products capable of meaningful study" is somewhat misleading, since what is actually presented is an un-illustrated review of the previous research on these wares: more recent work shows that there is considerable scope for further useful study of Colchester oxidised wares, reduced wares, and Black-burnished wares (Type 2) as well as the aforementioned wares.

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