Sealey, P R, 'The amphoras - summary and conclusions', in
entry no. 226, 98-111. See also, in microfiche, M3: A2-9,
Williams, D F, 'The amphoras - Petrological examination' M3:
A9-l4, Niblett, R, Williams, D F & Sealey, PR, 'Catalogue
of amphoras and their contexts' For site & location
details, see entry no. 226. amp See also entry no. 235.
Sherds from a minimum of 135 amphoras were found and a range of
nine types and stoppers is listed in the microfiche section.
Most of these vessels reached the site in the period AD 43-60/1
and it is their considerable quantity which is permits a
statistical study of trade in the early years of Roman
occupation. They are of value not only for the understanding of
the site itself, but also as a reflection of the economy in
other parts of the Empire. In order to evaluate the economic
significance of the various foams the minimum number of vessels
and their respective capacities are calculated and presented in
a number of tables.
Wine and olive oil were evidently the principal contents in
terms of volume, though highly-salted marine sauces and salted
fish were also important. Of these, wine was the single most
important commodity and there is a detailed study of the wine
trade. An estimate of the significance of the different
wine-producing regions shows that Italy was the most important
source of the wine consumed at Sheepen. However, in teams of
amphora-borne commodities of all types, Spain was most
important, accounting for 61 of the 135 amphoras. Spain was the
only source of olive oil, salazones and probably de
frutum. The report also contains an assessment of chronology
and attempts to account for the high numbers of Dressel 1
amphoras at Sheepen in the early years of occupation (a total of
51 from both the 1930-39 and the 1970 excavations). These
are explained in terms of secondary use and the possibility of a
1st century BC settlement is discounted.
232 Williams, D F,
'Petrological analysis of the mortaria', in entry no. 226,
For site & location details, see entry no. 226.
See also entry no. 228.
Sherds from four of the mortaria selected for publication are
analysed. One, in Williams fabric 5, is from the Mayen region of
Germany, and the remaining three, all fabric 4, have textural
similarities with the first.
The work is noted as being part of a long-term project.
233 Rodwell, K A (with reports on the mortaria and samian
by K F
Hartley & W Rodwell, respectively), 'The excavation of a
Romano-British pottery kiln at Palmer's School, Grays,
Essex', Essex Arch. & Hist. Vol 15, 1984,
exc,sir/kln/late 2nd or early 3rd (kiln); late 1st,early 2nd-3rd
An account of a late 2nd or early 3rd century kiln
characteristic of the North Thames bank which produced a range
of coarse wares including pedestal urns. Debris from an earlier
phase indicated production of cream and cream-slipped ware
mortaria and flagons and also coarse wares. It is the mortaria,
reported on separately by K F Hartley, which provide the dating
evidence for the two kiln phases: these were stamped with triple
her ringbone stamps which are unique to the site (note: the
scale on Fig. 7 (mortarium stamps) should read 2:1, not 1:1).
A total of c 75 kg of kiln pottery
was recovered and a limited range of six coarse ware foams are
defined, in addition to the mortaria and flagons. This is the
only site outside Colchester known to
produced white wares in Essex but of the two grey ware fabrics,
the author notes 'Neither would be distinctive away from their
site of manufacture'. A small amount of non-kiln pottery is
described and the samian is reported on separately by W Rodwell.
Note: there is some confusion over the dating of the kiln since
in the introduction (p 1) a late 2nd century date is given but
in the discussion (p 34) a date of late 2nd or early 3rd century
is implied by the mortaria.
Location: Thurrock Local History Museum, Grays
234 Rodwell, W J, 'The Production and Distribution of
Pottery and Tiles in the Territory of the Trinovantes', Essex
Arch. & Hist.
Vol 14 (1982), 1983, 15-76.
syn/kln,ptp,trd/mid 1st-late 4th
Although first drafted in 1974, and therefore not privy to the
now considerable amount of work on this subject which has since
taken place, this paper is nonetheless an important contribution
to the knowledge and understanding of kilns in the Trinovantian
area (of which Essex forms a large part). It is divided into
three sections covering raw materials, marketing and
distribution together with a substantial appendix listing known
or inferred kilns and a useful bibliography.
Revisions to Hull's (1963) original dating of some of the
Colchester kilns appear in Appendix 1 and there are changes,
with some additions, to the earlier list of samian potters
There is an attempt to consider production in geographic and
economic terms (see graph, Fig. 10) with the following
conclusions: (1) Colchester kilns saw intense activity in the
2nd century (2) rural areas (Le. outside Colchester) saw a
steady level of production from the mid-1st to the late 3rd
century, with a substantial increase in the number of kilns in
the 4th century.
Four groups of wares are selected for detailed study in the
section on marketing and distribution; Colchester samian,
mortaria, colour-coated wares and Hadham colour-coated wares.
Of these, the three Colchester wares are found to have been
closely related in terms of potters, kilns, fabrics and
decoration in the period c AD 140/150-200, during which
time these wares dominated the Trinovantian market. Considering
the 4th group, Hadham (Herts) wares, Rodwell isolates a
distinctive range of products which were widely distributed in
Essex in the later Roman period.
R P Symonds writes: It must be noted that there are several
somewhat controversial aspects to this paper. On the dating of
the production of samian at Colchester, it is not in agreement
continued with the dating proposed in
entry no. 236 (Simpson 1983) which appears in the same volume of
Essex Arch. & Hut.. On the relations between
samian production at Coichester and that at Sinzig on the Rhine
it is not wholly supported by the paper which is published
elsewhere in this volume of JRPS (Storey, Symonds, Hart,
Smith & Walsh, 'A chemical investigation of
'Colchester' samian by means of inductively-coupled plasma
emission spectrometry'), although the points in dispute may be
relatively minor. The statement that Colchester samian, mortaria,
colour-coated wares and Hadham colour- coated wares "are
the principal local products capable of meaningful study"
is somewhat misleading, since what is actually presented is an
un-illustrated review of the previous research on these wares:
more recent work shows that there is considerable scope for
further useful study of Colchester oxidised wares, reduced
wares, and Black-burnished wares (Type 2) as well as the